Human-use active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are generally excreted and emitted into the sewerage system following use. The compounds may then be released into surface waters or enter terrestrial ecosystems when sewage effluent is emitted to river systems or used for irrigation or where sewage sludge is applied as a fertilizer to agricultural land (Kinney et al. 2006; Ternes et al. 2004; Cunningham et al., 2012). Consequently, a variety of APIs have been detected in the natural environment across the world (e.g., Hirsch et. al. 1999; Kolpin et al. 2002; Ramirez et al. 2009). Although reported concentrations are generally low, many APIs have been detected in a variety of hydrological, climatic, and land-use settings and some can persist in the environment for months to years (e.g., Monteiro and Boxall 2009).